小樽商科大学 過去問 2018(H30)年02月25日実施 第2問

小樽商科大学 過去問 2018(H30)年02月25日実施 第2問

小樽商科大学 過去問 2018(H30)年02月25日実施


第2問 Read the text below.  Following the text are ten statements.  Five statements are false.  Write the numbers of the false statements in the brackets and rewrite the statements in English to make them true. (50点)

Many economists try to scare the public in developed countries into thinking that aging populations are a problem.  They describe how aging will make a nation’s population less innovative and vibrant.  They wring their collective hands over the impact on the working population of having to care for so many retirees.  Ultimately, they urge incentives for population growth, both to increase the birth rate and to increase immigration.  These arguments are based on a view of the future that is, in reality, a Ponzi scheme.  Endless growth of population is impossible, and additional young people and working-age immigrants will grow older and need support.

Instead, we should be celebrating aging society, not trying to find ways to offset them with higher birth rates.  Since the world’s population growth must stop at some point, each country should move toward a system that does not rely on ever-increasing numbers of people to support the elderly or to maintain economic welfare.  In fact, incentive program like those in Germany and France, if they are successful, will only make the “dependency ratio” worse by adding babies (who are 100% dependent) to the burden on the working population.

Many of the elderly in most developed countries have savings that make them able to live independently for many years of retirement.  More important, there is a much faster fix than trying to add more children, who will not become economically productive for decades: raising retirement ages to reflect the greater longevity and working capability of today’s older adults and to make pension programs more sustainable.

Here is a more troubling problem when governments encourage fertility though: the state is providing the worst possible motivation for becoming parents.  An example is Mongolia, which is paying $25 per Mongolian baby born.  There are reports of some people having babies just to collect the $25 before turning the child over to an orphanage.

In short, we need to plan for flat and probably shrinking populations and not try to postpone the day when those goals are achieved.  Otherwise, we face serious environmental and social problems.


wring one’s hands: be anxious

Ponzi scheme: illegal investment operation in which each investor has to recruit several new investors



(1) The author believes that population aging is welcome and should not be stopped.

(2) Many economists worry that having to care for a large number of retired elderly people will be

a burden on the working population.

(3) Economists believe collective work will lower the impact of population aging.

(4) Germany and France have introduced a system that does not rely on population growth to

support the elderly and maintain economic welfare

(5) Today’s older adults will live longer and work better than future generations.

(6) Higher birth rate will increase the economic burden on the working population.

(7) Governments should decrease pensions in order to make retirement programs sustainable.

(8) Programs trying to increase birth rates through financial stimulus give rise to bad parenting.

(9) If population shrinking is not stopped, the planet will face environmental and social problems

(10)  Higher birth rates and immigration do not offer permanent solutions to the problems of aging societies.


(3)  Economists believe that population growth will lower the impact of population aging.

(4)  Germany and France have introduced a system that relies on population growth to support the elderly and maintain economic welfare.

(5)  Today’s older adults live longer and work better than previous[またはearlier] generations.

(7)  Governments should raise retirement ages in order to make pension programs sustainable.

(9)  If we don’t plan for population shrinking, the planet will face environmental and social problems.



(1) 第2段落第1文に一致している。「筆者の考えでは、人口の高齢化は歓迎すべきであり、止めるべきではない」。

(2) 第1段落第3文に一致している。「経済学者の多くが心配しているのは、退職した大量の高齢者の世話をしなくてはならないことが、労働者人口の負担になることだ」。

(3) 第1段落第3、4文を参照。 「経済学者の考えでは、人口増加によって人口高齢化の影響は緩和される」。wring their collective hands over ~ 「~を皆で嘆いている」。

wring one’s [the] hand (苦痛・悲しみ・絶望などの仕草として)手を絞るようにする、手をもむ。

(4) 第2段落第2、3文参照。「ドイツとフランスは、人口成長に依存して高齢者を支え、経済的福祉を維持する制度を導入済である。」incentive program「奨励事業」の内容は赤ん坊を増やすこと、つまり人口成長に依存している。

(5) 第3段落第2文を参照。「今日の高齢者は過去の世代よりも長生きし、よく働いている。」

(6) 第2段落最終文に一致している。「出生率の上昇は、労働人口の経済的負担を増やすだろう。」

(7) 第3段落第2文参照。「政府は「年金制度」を持続可能にするために、定年を引き上げるべきだ。」

(8) 第4段落第2、3文に一致している。「財政的刺激により出生率上昇を目論む計画の結果、育児の質がさがる」。

(9) 最終段落参照。「もし人口減少への対策がなされなければ、地球は環境問題や社会問題に直面するであろう。」

(10) 第1段落4、5文に一致している。「出生率と移民を増やすことは高齢化社会という問題の恒久的解決策にはならない。」











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