小樽商科大学 過去問 2018年02月25日実施 第１問
第１問 Read the text and write QUESTIONS in English for the answers below. (30点)
Since the beginning of recorded history, people have been curious about aquatic life. Keeping fish for pleasure or for food dates back to at least 2500 BCE in Babylonia, where the Sumerians kept fish in artificial ponds. Later, the Chinese raised carp for food and the Romans held pet marine fish in ponds that were connected to the sea by channels. All of these early cultures noticed that it was difficult to keep fish in ponds because the water quality would soon deteriorate, which made the fish sick. Thus, maintaining the health of fish in ponds and pools has been one of man’s dreams for hundreds of years.
The public aquarium as we know it today started in Regent’s Park in London at the Zoological Gardens around the middle of the 19th century. The staff put glass-sided tanks for displaying fish into a small building and called it “The Fish House.” These tanks contained plants as well, which played an important role in sustaining water quality. Just as on land, aquatic plants consume the carbon dioxide released by fish and in turn produce the oxygen needed to keep all the tank inhabitants happy and healthy. As if to return the favor, solid waste products from the fish are useful as fertilizer or food for the plants.
In the 20th century, the development of aquarium technology enabled tanks to be furnished with a variety of equipment that created an ideal environment for fish to live in. Glass tanks now normally include filters, air pumps, lights and heaters. These vital device maintain healthy water free of toxic chemicals with plenty of adequate light for photosynthetic plants.
Because large-scale aquariums in public provide education and recreation as well as entertainment, marine animals enjoy particular popularity these days. Privately owned aquariums often offer educational programs and animal shows using sea animals such as dolphins and killer whales.
The way of exhibiting larger marine animals has also been changing in recent decades. The Asahiyama Zoo, situated in Asahikawa City in Hokkaido, has become famous nationwide because of its unique tank configuration. People can watch the penguins, one of the main attractions, from below as they walk through a tank shaped like a tunnel. Viewers feel as if the penguins are flying above their heads.
According to recent research, watching fish swimming can have healthy outcomes, such easing stress, reducing high blood pressure, and relieving the pain of dental patients. Aquariums can enrich our lives with both amusement and health benefits. Over the centuries, man’s dream of keeping fish for pleasure has turned into a popular leisure activity appealing to people of all ages and cultures.
aquatic: (of a plant or animal) growing or living in or near water
aquarium: a building containing tanks of live fish of different species
photosynthesis: the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to make nutrients from carbon dioxide and water
(1) By channel
(2) To sustain water quality
(3) Dolphins or killer whales
(4) A tank shaped like a tunnel
(5) People of all ages and cultures
(1) How did the Romans connect ponds to the sea?
別解 How were the Roman ponds connected to the sea?
(2) Why did the glass-sided tanks in the aquarium contain plants?
別解 Why did “The Fish House” use plants in its glass-sided tanks?
(3) What kind(s) [ type(s) / sort(s) ] of sea animals do privately owned aquariums use to offer educational programs and animal shows?
別解 1 What are the examples of sea animals privately owned aquariums use for [ in ] educational programs and animal shows?
別解 2 What sea animals are used by private aquariums for educational programs and animal shows?
(4) Where do people walk to see the penguins swim around them?
別解 What do people walk through while they watch the penguins from below at the Asahiyama Zoo?
(5) Who is interested in keeping fish for pleasure?
別解 To whom is the popular leisure activity of keeping fish for pleasure appealing?
(1) 第１段落第３文参照。 「水路(channels)によって海と繋がれた池で」とあるので「水路によって」が答えとなる疑問文を考える。「～を…につなげる」connect ～ to …。
(2) 第２段落第３文参照。「これらの水槽には植物も入っており、水質を維持するのに重要役割を担っていた」とあるので「水質を維持するため」が答えとなる疑問文を考える。「～するために」を導くには Why で始まる疑問文を考える。
(3) 第４段落最終文参照。３つの要素 sea animals、aquarium、educational programs を必ず入れる。「イルカ、シャチ(killer whales)が答えとなる疑問文を作る。